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Top 60+ Software Testing Interview Questions & Answers 2024

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Interviews are generally anxiety-inducing, but as long as you have some solid preparation before you enter the interview room, there is nothing to worry about. In this article, we have prepared top 60 software testing interview questions, each with detailed answers and explanations, for you to consolidate your knowledge in the field.
 

Our questions are carefully selected and categorized into 3 sections: Beginner level - Intermediate level - Advanced level. At the end we have also included valuable tips, strategies, and helpful resources to answer tricky interview questions better, as well as suggest some more personal questions that aim to uncover your previous experience in the field for you to prepare.
 

You can jump to the section you need using the Table of Contents on the left side, or read through each individual question. The choice is yours!

Beginners Level Software Testing Interview Questions and Answers For Freshers

1. What is software testing?

Software testing is a process to assess the quality, functionality, and performance of a software product before it is launched. Testers carry out this process either by interacting with the software manually or running test scripts to automatically check for bugs and errors, ensuring that the software functions as intended. Additionally, software testing is conducted to verify the fulfillment of business logic and identify any gaps in requirements that require immediate attention.

2. Why is software testing important in the software development process?

Product quality should be defined in a broader sense than just “a software without bugs”. Quality encompasses meeting and surpassing customer expectations. While an application should fulfill its intended functions, it can only attain the label of "high-quality" when it surpasses those expectations. Software testing does exactly that: it maintains the software quality at a consistent standard, while continuously improving the overall user experience and identifying areas for optimization.


Read More: What is Software Testing? Definition, Guide, Tools

3. Explain the Software Testing Life Cycle (STLC)

The Software Testing Life Cycle (STLC) is a systematic process that QA teams follow when conducting software testing. The stages in an STLC are designed to achieve high test coverage, while maintaining test efficiency.

Software Testing Life Cycle by Katalon

There are 6 stages in the STLC:

  1. Requirement Analysis: During this stage, software testers collaborate with stakeholders in the development process (developers, business analyst, clients, product owner, etc.) to identify and comprehend test requirements. The information gathered from this discussion is compiled into the Requirement Traceability Matrix (RTM) document. This document is the foundation of the test strategy.
  2. Test Planning: from a comprehensive test strategy, we develop a test plan, in which details about objectives, approach, scope of the testing project, test deliverables, dependencies, environment, risk management, and schedule are noted down. It is a more granular version of the test strategy.
  3. Test Case Development: Depending on whether teams want to execute the tests manually or automatically, we’ll have different approaches to this stage. Certain test cases are more suitable to be executed manually, while some should be automated to save time. Generally, in manual testing, testers write down the specific steps of the test case in a spreadsheet and document the results there, while in automated testing, the test case is written as a script using a test automation framework like Selenium or an automation testing tool with low-code test authoring feature like Katalon.
  4. Environment Setup: QA teams set up the hardware-software-network configuration to conduct their testing based on their plan. There are many environments to run a test on, either locally, remotely, or on cloud.
  5. Test Execution: The QA team prepares test cases, test scripts, and test data based on clear objectives. Tests can be done manually or automatically. Manual testing is used when human insights and judgment are needed, while automation testing is preferred for repetitive flows with minor changes. Defects found during testing are tracked and reported to the development team, who promptly address them.
  6. Test Cycle Closure: This is the last stage of Software Testing. Software testers will come together to examine their findings from the tests, assess how well they worked, and record important lessons to remember in the future. It's important to regularly assess your QA team's software testing procedure to maintain control over all testing activities throughout the STLC phases.

4. What is the purpose of test data? How do you create an effective test data set?

Usually the software being tested is still in the staging environment where no usage data is available. Certain test scenarios require data from real users, such as the Login feature test, which involves users typing in certain combinations of usernames and passwords. In such cases, testers need to prepare a test data set consisting of mock usernames and passwords to simulate actual user interactions with the system. 


There are several criteria when creating a test data set:

  • Data Relevance: is the data relevant to the application being tested? Does it represent real-world scenarios?
  • Data Diversity: is there a wide variety of data types (valid/invalid/boundary values, special characters, etc.)? Have these data types covered enough input combinations to achieve maximum coverage?
  • Data Completeness: does the data cover all of the necessary elements required for that particular scenario (for example: mandatory/optional fields)
  • Data Size: should we use a small or large data set?
  • Data Security: is there any sensitive/confidential information in the data set? Is the test data properly managed and stored?
  • Data Independence: is the test data independent from other test cases? Does the test data of this test case interfere with the result of another?

5. What is shift left testing? How different is it from shift right testing?

Shift Left Testing includes reduced cost, higher efficiency, higher quality, and competitive advantage for the company

Shift Left testing is a software testing approach that focuses on conducting testing activities earlier in the development process. This approach involves moving all testing activities to earlier development stages instead of waiting until the final stages. Its purpose is to be proactive in identifying and resolving defects at an early stage, thereby preventing their spread throughout the entire application. By addressing issues sooner, the cost and effort needed for fixing them are reduced.


On the other hand, shift right testing, also known as testing in production, focuses on conducting testing activities after the development process. It involves gathering insights from real user feedback and interactions after the software has been deployed. Developers then use those insights to improve software quality and come up with new feature ideas.


Below is a table comparing Shift Left Testing and Shift Right Testing:

Aspect

Shift Left Testing

Shift Right Testing

Testing Initiation

Starts testing early in the development process

Starts testing after development and deployment

Objective

Early defect detection and prevention

Finding issues in production and real-world scenarios

Testing Activities

Static testing, unit testing, continuous integration testing

Exploratory testing, usability testing, monitoring, and feedback analysis

Collaboration

Collaboration between developers and testers from the beginning

Collaboration with operations and customer support teams

Defect Discovery

Early detection and resolution of defects

Detection of defects in production environments and live usage

Time and Cost Impact

Reduces overall development time and cost

May increase cost due to issues discovered in production

Time-to-Market

Faster delivery due to early defect detection

May impact time-to-market due to post-production issues

Test Automation

Significant reliance on test automation for early testing

Test automation may be used for continuous monitoring and feedback

Agile and DevOps Fit

Aligned with Agile and DevOps methodologies

Complements DevOps by focusing on production environments

Feedback Loop

Continuous feedback throughout SDLC

Continuous feedback from real users and operations

Risks and Benefits

Reduces risks of major defects reaching production

Identifies issues that may not be apparent during development

Continuous Improvement

Enables continuous improvement based on early feedback

Drives improvements based on real-world usage and customer feedback

6. Explain the difference between functional testing and non-functional testing.

Aspect

Functional Testing

Non-Functional Testing

Definition

Focuses on verifying the application's functionality

Assesses aspects not directly related to functionality (performance, security, usability, scalability, etc.)

Objective

Ensure the application works as intended

Evaluate non-functional attributes of the application

Types of Testing

Unit testing, integration testing, system testing, acceptance testing

Performance testing, security testing, usability testing, etc.

Examples

Verifying login functionality, checking search filters, etc.

Assessing system performance, security against unauthorized access, etc.

Timing

Performed at various stages of development

Often executed after functional testing

7. What is the purpose of test cases and test scenarios?

A test case is a specific set of conditions and inputs that are executed to validate a particular aspect of the software functionality, while a test scenario is a much broader concept, representing the real-world situation being tested. It combines multiple related test cases to verify the behavior of the software.

8. What is a defect, and how do you report it effectively?

A defect is a flaw in a software application causing it to behave in an unintended way. They are also called bugs, and usually these terms are used interchangeably, although there are some slight nuances between them.

To report a defect/bug effectively, there are several recommended best practices:

  • Try to reproduce it consistently, and describe the exact steps to trigger that issue for the developers to have an easier time addressing it on their end.
  • Use defect tracking tool like Jira, Bugzilla, or GitHub Issues to better manage the defect
  • Provide a clear and descriptive title to the bug
  • Write a high specific description that includes all relevant information about the bug (environment, steps to reproduce, expected behavior, actual behavior, frequency, severity, etc.)
  • Add screenshots if need to

9. Explain the Bug Life Cycle

The defect/bug life cycle encompasses the steps involved in handling bugs or defects within software development. This standardized process enables efficient bug management, empowering teams to effectively detect and resolve issues.  There are 2 approaches to describe the defect life cycle: by workflow and by bug status.

bug life cycle workflow
The flow chart above illustrates the bug life cycle, following these steps:

  1. Testers execute tests.
  2. Testers report newly found bugs and submit them to a bug management system, setting the bug status to new.
  3. Project leads, project managers, and testers review the reported bugs and decide whether to fix them. If necessary, they assign developers to work on them, updating the bug status to in progress or under investigation.
  4. Developers investigate and reproduce the bugs.
  5. Developers fix the bugs if successfully reproduced. Otherwise, they request more information from the testers and update the bug status accordingly.
  6. Testers provide further description or use bug-reporting tools to elaborate on the bug.
  7. Testers verify the fix by executing the steps described in the bug report.
  8. Testers close the bug if the fix is verified. Otherwise, they update the bug status and provide further explanation.

10. How do you categorize defects?

When reporting bugs, we should categorize them based on their attributes, characteristics, and criteria for easier management, analysis, and troubleshooting later. Here is a list of basic bug categories that you can consider:

  • Severity (High - Medium - Low impact to system performance/security)
  • Priority (High - Medium - Low urgency)
  • Reproducibility (Reproducible, Intermittent, Non-Reproducible, or Cannot Reproduce)
  • Root Cause (Coding Error, Design Flaw, Configuration Issue, or User Error, etc.)
  • Bug Type (Functional Bugs, Performance Issues, Usability Problems, Security Vulnerabilities, Compatibility Errors, etc.)
  • Areas of Impact
  • Frequency of Occurrence

11. What is the difference between manual testing and automated testing?

Automated testing is highly effective for large-scale regression testing with thousands of test cases that need to be executed repeatedly. Unlike human testers, machines offer unmatched consistency and accuracy, reducing the chances of human errors.

However, manual testing excels for smaller projects, ad-hoc testing, and exploratory testing. Creating automation test scripts for such cases requires more effort than simply testing them manually, mainly for two reasons:

  • These test cases are not repetitive, making automation counterintuitive for one-off tasks.
  • The goal of these tests is to uncover unknown, hidden bugs, and they are not based on predefined test cases. Human creativity plays a crucial role here, something machines lack.

Furthermore, in smaller projects, it may be challenging to determine if a test case is repetitive enough to be automated. At the early stage, maintaining automated tests can be more demanding than executing them manually. Hence, the decision on whether to automate heavily relies on business requirements, time, resource constraints, and software development project objectives.

Read More: Manual Testing vs Automation Testing

12. Define the term "test plan" and describe its components.

A test plan is like a detailed guide for testing a software system. It tells us how we'll test, what we'll test, and when we'll test it. The plan covers everything about the testing, like the goals, resources, and possible risks. It makes sure that the software works well and is of good quality.

13. What is regression testing? Why is automated testing recommended for regression testing?

Why is regression testing important

Regression testing is a type of software testing conducted after a code update to ensure that the update introduced no new bugs. It involves repeatedly testing the same core features of the application, making the task repetitive by nature. 


As software evolves and more features are added, the number of regression tests to be executed also increases. When you have a large codebase, manual regression testing becomes time-consuming and impractical. Automated testing can be executed quickly, allowing faster feedback on code quality. Automated tests eliminate risks of human errors, and the fast test execution allows for higher test coverage. 

14. What are the advantages and disadvantages of using automated testing tools?
Advantages of Automated Testing

Automated testing (or automation testing) brings a wide range of benefits, but automation testing tools take that to the next level. 


There are 2 ways to do automation testing: either they shop around for a solution vendor for a software offering the test framework they need, or build an open-source test framework by themselves in-house. Building an entire tool from scratch gives the QA team complete control over the product, but the level of engineering expertise required to achieve that is huge, and you must continuously maintain the tool. In contrast, buying an automated testing tool from a vendor saves you from all of that burden, and you can start testing immediately.


Many other advantages of automation testing tools include:

  • Simplifying all stages of the software testing life cycle, allowing QA teams to significantly enhance their process
  • Built-in test design patterns (BDD testing, data-driven, keyword-driven testing) so that testers can start testing immediately without having to build these patterns from scratch.
  • Tool vendors are responsible for tool maintenance and updates, so that QA teams can focus fully on testing.
  • No additional setup needed for test execution
  • Built-in test reporting

When choosing an automation testing tool, we should always consider the team’s specific needs, resources, and future scalability. Have a look at the top 15 automation testing tools on the market currently.

15. Explain the Test Pyramid

The test pyramid is a testing strategy that represents the distribution of different types of automated tests based on their scope and complexity. It consists of three layers: unit tests at the base, integration tests in the middle, and UI tests at the top.

Test Pyramid Model for software testing

Unit tests form the wide base of the pyramid. They focus on testing small, independent sections of code in isolation. These tests are fast and cost-effective as they verify individual code units and can be written by developers in their coding language.


The middle part is API tests and integration tests, which focus on testing the data flow between software components and external systems. The narrow wedge at the top represents UI tests. These tests are the most expensive and time-consuming because they verify the application's user interface and interactions between various components. They are performed later in the development cycle and are more prone to becoming fragile when minor changes in the unit level code cause widespread errors in the application.


The test pyramid encourages a higher number of low-level unit tests to ensure the core functionality is working correctly, while the smaller number of high-level UI tests verifies the overall application behavior but at a higher cost and complexity. Following this approach helps teams achieve comprehensive test coverage with faster feedback and reduced testing efforts.

16. Describe the differences between black-box testing, white-box testing, and gray-box testing.

Black-box testing focuses on testing the functionality of the software without considering its internal code structure or implementation details. Testers treat the software as a "black box," where they have no knowledge of its internal workings. The goal is to validate that the software meets the specified requirements and performs as expected from an end-user's perspective.


White-box testing involves testing the internal structure, logic, and code implementation of the software application. Testers have access to the source code and use this knowledge to design test cases. The focus is on validating the correctness of the code, ensuring that all statements, branches, and paths are exercised.


Gray-box testing is a blend of black-box and white-box testing approaches. Testers have partial knowledge of the internal workings of the software, such as the architecture, algorithms, or database structure. The level of information provided to testers is limited, striking a balance between the complete ignorance of black-box testing and the full access of white-box testing.

17. How do you prioritize test cases?

Certain test cases should be prioritized for execution so that more critical and high-risk areas are tested in advance. It is also a good practice to manage testing resources or meet project timelines. There are several approaches to test case prioritization:

  • Risk-based approach: identify the higher-risk areas to test first (critical functionalities, high-impact on bottom line, complex modules, modules with many dependencies, or components with history of defects)
  • Functional approach: identify test cases for core features to test first
  • Frequency approach: prioritize test cases for components that are heavily used by users
  • Integration points: depending on the scope of the test project, we can prioritize test cases for critical connection points between software components
  • Performance-critical scenarios: prioritize test cases related to performance-critical scenarios. This ensures that the software is ready for high volume of traffic
  • Security approach: identify areas that have high security risks to test first
  • Priority from stakeholders: take into account the input and priorities of key stakeholders, such as project managers, product owners, and end-users

18. What is the purpose of the traceability matrix in software testing?

The traceability matrix in software testing is a crucial document for ensuring comprehensive test coverage and establishing a clear link between various artifacts throughout the software development and testing life cycle. Its primary purpose is to trace and manage the relationships between requirements, test cases, and other relevant artifacts.

19. What is exploratory testing? Is it different from ad-hoc testing?

Exploratory testing is an unscripted, manual software testing type where testers examine the system with no pre-established test cases and no previous exposure to the system. Instead of following a strict test plan, they jump straight to testing and make spontaneous decisions about what to test on the fly. 


Exploratory testing shares many similarities with ad-hoc testing, but there are still minor differences between the 2 approaches. 

Aspect

Exploratory Testing

Ad Hoc Testing

Approach

Systematic and structured

Unplanned and unstructured

Planning

Testers design and execute tests on the fly based on their knowledge and expertise

Testers test without a predefined plan or test cases

Test Execution

Involves simultaneous test design, execution, and learning

Testing occurs without predefined steps or guidelines

Purpose

To explore the software, find issues, and gain a deeper understanding

Typically used for quick checks and informal testing

Documentation

Notes and observations are documented during testing

Minimal or no formal documentation of testing activities

Test Case Creation

Test cases may be created on-the-fly but are not pre-planned

No pre-defined test cases or test scripts

Skill Requirement

Requires skilled and experienced testers

Can be performed by any team member without specific testing skills

Reproducibility

Test cases can be reproduced to validate and fix issues

Lack of predefined test cases may lead to difficulty reproducing bugs

Test Coverage

Can cover specific areas or explore new paths during testing

Coverage may be limited and dependent on tester knowledge

Flexibility

Adapts to changing conditions or discoveries during testing

Provides flexibility to test based on the tester's intuition

Intentional Testing

Still focused on testing specific aspects of the software

More often used to check the software in an unstructured manner

Maturity

Evolved and recognized testing approach

Considered less mature or formal than structured testing methods

20. Explain the concept of CI/CD

CI/CD stands for Continuous Integration and Continuous Delivery (or Continuous Deployment), and it is a set of practices and principles used in software development to streamline the process of building, testing, and delivering software changes to production. The ultimate goal of CI/CD is to enable faster, more reliable, and more frequent delivery of software updates to end-users while maintaining high-quality standards.

  • Continuous Integration is the practice of frequently integrating code changes from multiple developers into a shared repository. Developers commit their code changes to this repository multiple times a day. Each commit triggers an automated build and a series of tests to ensure that the newly added code integrates well with the existing codebase without introducing critical defects.
  • Continuous Delivery is the practice of automating the software release process to ensure that the application is always in a deployable state. With CD, any changes that pass the automated tests in the CI stage are automatically deployed to a staging or pre-production environment. This process reduces the risk of human error during the release process and ensures that the software is consistently and quickly available for testing and validation.

Intermediate Level Software Testing Interview Questions and Answers

21. Explain the differences between static testing and dynamic testing. Provide examples of each.

Static testing involves reviewing and analyzing software artifacts without executing the code. Examples of static testing include code reviews, inspections, and walkthroughs. Dynamic testing involves executing the code to validate its behavior. Examples of this type include unit testing, integration testing, and system testing.

22. What is the V-model in software testing? How does it differ from the traditional waterfall model?

v-model traditional model of software testing

The V-model is a software testing model that emphasizes testing activities aligned with the corresponding development phases. It differs from the traditional waterfall model by integrating testing activities at each development stage, forming a "V" shape. In the V-model, testing activities are parallel to development phases, promoting early defect detection.

23. Describe the concept of test-driven development (TDD) and how it influences the testing process.

TDD is a software development approach where test cases are written before the actual code. Programmers create automated unit tests to define the desired functionality. Then, they write code to pass these tests. TDD influences the testing process by ensuring better test coverage and early detection of defects.
 

steps to perform TDD

Read More: TDD vs BDD: A Comparison

24. Discuss the importance of test environment management and the challenges involved in setting up test environments.

Test environment management is vital to create controlled and representative testing environments. It allows QA teams to:

  • Execute test cases and run tests without production environment
  • Ensures that testing conditions are consistent and can be reproduced for debugging and resolving issues effectively
  • Well-managed test environments closely resemble the production environment, ensuring that test results accurately reflect the behavior of the software in the real-world scenario.
  • Enable the creation of different configurations to simulate various operating systems, browsers, devices

Managing test environments can be challenging in terms of:

  • Gaining access and managing shared environments may be tricky, especially in teams with limited resources
  • Configuring and maintaining complex test environments require technical expertise
  • Properly managing test data, ensuring its security and privacy, and maintaining data integrity require dedicated teams
  • Aligning the test environment with the production environment may require teams to invest into physical machines

25. What are the different types of test design techniques? When would you use these types of test design techniques?

Test design techniques are methods used to derive and select test cases from test conditions or test scenarios. 

Test Design Technique

Coverage Types / Basic Techniques

Test Basis

Quality Characteristic / Test Type

When to Use

Boundary Value Analysis (BVA)

Input Domain Coverage

Input Specifications

Correctness, Robustness

When testing input ranges and boundary conditions

Equivalence Partitioning (EP)

Input Domain Coverage

Input Specifications

Correctness, Robustness

When testing input classes that behave similarly

Decision Table Testing

Logic Coverage

Business Rules

Correctness, Business Logic

When dealing with complex business logic

State Transition Testing

State-Based Coverage

State Diagrams

Correctness, State Transitions

When testing systems with state-based behavior

Pairwise Testing

Combinatorial Coverage

Multiple Parameters

Efficiency, Combinatorial Coverage

When testing combinations of multiple input parameters

Use Case Testing

Functional Scenario Coverage

Use Case Specifications

Requirement Validation, Functional Testing

When validating the system against specific use cases

Exploratory Testing

N/A

N/A

Defect Detection, Usability Testing

When exploring the system without predefined scripts

Decision Table Test

Logic Coverage

Business Rules

Correctness, Business Logic

When testing complex decision-making scenarios

Data Combination Test

Input Domain Coverage

Input Specifications

Correctness, Data Validation

When testing various combinations of input data

Elementary Comparison Test

Comparison of Individual Elements

Functional Requirements

Correctness, Data Validation

When comparing individual elements in the system

Error Guessing

Error-Based Coverage

Tester's Experience

Defect Detection, Usability Testing

When leveraging tester's intuition to guess potential defects

Data Cycle Test

Functional Scenario Coverage

Data Flows

Data Flow Verification

When testing data flow through different components

Process Cycle Test

Functional Scenario Coverage

Process Flows

Process Flow Verification

When testing end-to-end processes within the system

Real-Life Test

Real-Life Scenarios

Real-World Use Cases

Real-Life Use Case Validation

When validating the system against real-world scenarios

26. Explain the concept of test data management and its significance in software testing.

Test data management (TDM) is the process of creating, maintaining, and controlling the data used for software testing purposes. It involves managing test data throughout the testing lifecycle, from test case design to test execution. The primary goal of test data management is to ensure that testers have access to relevant, accurate, and representative test data to perform thorough and effective testing.

27. What are the common challenges in mobile app testing?

  • Device Fragmentation: The vast number of mobile devices with different screen sizes, resolutions, operating systems, and hardware configurations make it challenging to test on all possible combinations.
  • OS and Platform Versions: Testing across various OS versions and platforms introduces compatibility issues, as older devices may not support the latest software updates.
  • Network Conditions: Mobile apps are highly dependent on network connectivity, and testing in different network conditions (3G, 4G, Wi-Fi) is essential to validate app performance.
  • App Store Approval: Strict app store guidelines and review processes can lead to delays in app releases and updates.
  • Interrupt Testing: Handling interruptions like incoming calls, messages, or low battery scenarios without app crashes can be complex.
  • Limited Resources: Mobile devices have limited resources (CPU, memory), and apps must perform efficiently under these constraints.

Read More: Cross-browser Testing: A Complete Guide

28. Explain the concept of test automation framework. Examples of some test automation frameworks.

A test automation framework is a structured set of guidelines, best practices, and reusable components that provide an organized approach to designing, implementing, and executing automated tests. Its main purpose is to standardize test automation efforts, promote reusability, and provide a structure to manage test scripts and test data effectively.

Several test automation frameworks include:

  • Selenium WebDriver: A widely used open-source framework for web application testing. It supports multiple programming languages like Java, Python, C#, and more.
  • TestNG: A testing framework inspired by JUnit and NUnit, designed for test configuration, parallel execution, and better reporting in Java-based test automation.
  • JUnit: A popular testing framework for Java applications, commonly used for unit testing.
  • Cucumber: A behavior-driven development (BDD) framework that enables test scenarios to be written in a human-readable format. It integrates with languages like Java, Ruby, and JavaScript.
  • Robot Framework: An open-source, keyword-driven test automation framework that supports web, mobile, and desktop applications. It uses a simple tabular syntax for test case creation.
  • Appium: An open-source mobile application testing framework that supports automated testing of native, hybrid, and mobile web applications for Android and iOS. 

Read More: Top 8 Cross-browser Testing Tools For Your QA Team

29. How would you choose the right framework for a project?

Several criteria to consider when choosing a test automation framework for your project include:

  • Project Requirements: Assess the specific requirements of the project, including the application's complexity, supported technologies, and types of tests needed (e.g., functional, regression, performance).
  • Team Expertise: Evaluate the skillset and experience of the testing team members. Choose a framework that aligns with their expertise and allows them to work efficiently.
  • Scalability and Reusability: Look for frameworks that support scalability and encourage code reusability to avoid duplication of efforts.
  • Tool Integration: Consider the compatibility of the framework with the test automation tools and technologies that the team intends to use.
  • Maintenance Effort: Assess the effort required to maintain the test scripts and framework components in the long run.
  • Community Support: Check if the framework has an active community and reliable support channels to address issues and queries.
  • Reporting and Logging: Ensure that the framework provides comprehensive reporting and logging capabilities to aid in result analysis and debugging.
  • Flexibility and Customization: Look for frameworks that can be customized to meet specific project needs and accommodate future changes.
  • Proof of Concept (POC): Conduct a small Proof of Concept (POC) to evaluate the framework's suitability and effectiveness in addressing the project's requirements

Read More: Test Automation Framework - 6 Common Types

30. How to test third-party integrations?

In the modern digital landscape, third-party integrations are quite common. However, since these third-party integrations may have been built on different technologies with the system under test, conflicts may occur. Testing for these integrations are necessary, and the process for it is similar to the Software Testing Life Cycle as follows:

  • Gain a thorough understanding of the third-party integrations, including their functionalities, APIs, data formats, and potential limitations. We can collaborate with the development and integration teams to gather detailed information.
  • Set up a dedicated testing environment that mirrors the production environment as closely as possible. Ensure that all third-party systems and APIs are accessible and correctly configured.
  • Perform integration testing to verify that the application correctly interacts with the third-party systems. Test various integration scenarios, data exchanges, and error handling.
  • Validate data mappings between the application and third-party systems
  • Test the application's behavior when encountering boundary conditions and error scenarios during data exchange with third-party systems.

31. What are different categories of debugging?

  • Static Debugging: analyzing the source code or program without executing it
  • Dynamic Debugging: analyzing the program during its execution or runtime
  • Reactive Debugging: performed after an issue or defect has been identified in the software, often used when a failure occurs during testing or in a live environment.
  • Proactive Debugging: anticipating potential issues and implementing preventive measures to minimize the occurrence of defects
  • Collaborative Debugging: multiple individuals working together to identify and resolve complex issues

32. Explain the concept of data-driven testing.

Data-driven testing is a testing approach in which test cases are designed to be executed with multiple sets of test data. Instead of writing separate test cases for each test data variation, data-driven testing allows testers to parameterize test cases and run them with different input data, often stored in external data sources such as spreadsheets or databases.

33. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of open-source testing tools in a project.

Advantages

Disadvantages

Free to use, no license fees

Limited Support

Active communities provide assistance

Steep Learning Curve

Can be tailored to project needs

Lack of Comprehensive Documentation

Source code is accessible for modification

Integration Challenges

Frequent updates and improvements

Occasional bugs or issues

Not tied to a specific vendor

Requires careful consideration of security

Large user base, abundant online resources

May not offer certain enterprise-level capabilities

Read More: Top 10 Free Open-source Testing Tools, Frameworks, and Libraries

34. Explain the concept of model-based testing. What is the process of model-based testing?

Model-Based Testing (MBT) is a testing technique that uses models to represent the system's behavior and generate test cases based on these models. The models can be in the form of finite state machines, flowcharts, decision tables, or other representations that capture the system's functionality, states, and transitions.

The process of Model-Based Testing involves the following steps:

  • Model Creation: Create a model that abstracts the behavior of the system under test. The model should represent various states, actions, and possible transitions between states.
  • Test Case Generation: Based on the model, generate test cases automatically or semi-automatically. These test cases represent different scenarios and combinations of actions to test the system's functionality.
  • Test Execution: Execute the generated test cases against the actual system and observe its behavior during testing.
  • Result Analysis: Analyze the test results to identify discrepancies between expected and actual system behavior. Any deviations or failures are then reported as defects.

35. What is TestNG?

TestNG (Test Next Generation) is a popular testing framework for Java-based applications. It is inspired by JUnit but provides additional features and functionalities to make test automation more efficient and flexible. TestNG is widely used in the Java development community for writing and running tests, particularly for unit testing, integration testing, and end-to-end testing.

36. Describe the role of the Page Object Model (POM) in test automation.

The Page Object Model (POM) is a design pattern widely used in test automation to enhance the maintainability, reusability, and readability of test scripts. It involves representing each web page or user interface (UI) element as a separate class, containing the methods and locators needed to interact with that specific page or element.

37. Explain the concept of abstraction layers in a test automation framework. How do they promote scalability and reduce code duplication?

In a test automation framework, abstraction layers are the hierarchical organization of components and modules that abstract the underlying complexities of the application and testing infrastructure. Each layer is designed to handle specific responsibilities, and they work together to create a robust and scalable testing infrastructure. The key abstraction layers typically found in a test automation framework are:

  • UI Layer
  • Business Logic Layer
  • API Layer
  • Data Layer
  • Utility Layer

38. Explain the concept of parallel test execution. How do you implement parallel testing to optimize test execution time?

Parallel test execution is a testing technique in which multiple test cases are executed simultaneously on different threads or machines. The goal of parallel testing is to optimize test execution time and improve the overall efficiency of the testing process. By running tests in parallel, testing time can be significantly reduced, allowing faster feedback and quicker identification of defects.

The main benefits of parallel test execution are:

  • Reduced test execution time
  • Faster feedback
  • Improved test coverage
  • Optimized resource allocation
  • Enhanced productivity

39. Compare Selenium vs Katalon

Category

Katalon

Selenium

Initial setup and prerequisites

  • Manual testing
  • Entry-level knowledge to Java/Groovy for debugging
  • Automation can be done by manual testers and developers/automation engineers
  • Manual testing
  • Advanced coding knowledge for the framework setup and write test scripts
  • Automation can only be done by a experienced developers/automation engineers

License Type

Commercial

Open-source

Supported application types

Web, mobile, API and desktop

Web

What to maintain 

Test scripts

  • Framework and libraries
  • Test script
  • Environments 
  • Integrations 

Language Support

Java/Groovy

Java, Ruby, C#, PHP, JavaScript, Python, Perl, Objective-C etc.,

Pricing

Free Forever with Free Trial versions and Premium with advanced features

Free

Knowledge Base & Community Support

  • Forum and community
  • Tickets
  • Dedicated onboarding manager (paid)

Community support

Read More: Katalon vs Selenium

40. Compare Selenium vs TestNG

Aspect

Selenium

TestNG

Purpose

Suite of tools for web application testing

Testing framework for test organization & execution

Functionality

Automation of web browsers and web elements

Test configuration, parallel execution, grouping, data-driven testing, reporting, etc.

Browser Support

Supports multiple browsers

N/A

Limitations

Primarily focused on web application testing

N/A

Parallel Execution

N/A

Supports parallel test execution at various levels (method, class, suite, group)

Test Configuration

N/A

Allows use of annotations for setup and teardown of test environments

Reporting & Logging

N/A

Provides comprehensive test execution reports and supports custom test listeners

Integration

Often used with TestNG for test management

Commonly used with Selenium for test execution, configuration, and reporting

Advanced Level Software Testing Interview Questions and Answers For Experienced Testers

41. How to develop a good test strategy?

When creating a test strategy document, we can make a table containing the listed items. Then, have a brainstorming session with key stakeholders (project manager, business analyst, QA Lead, and Development Team Lead) to gather the necessary information for each item. Here are some questions to ask:

Test Goals/Objectives:

  • What are the specific goals and objectives of the testing effort?
  • Which functionalities or features should be tested?
  • Are there any performance or usability targets to achieve?
  • How will the success of the testing effort be measured?

Sprint Timelines:

  • What is the duration of each sprint?
  • When does each sprint start and end?
  • Are there any milestones or deadlines within each sprint?
  • How will the testing activities be aligned with the sprint timelines?

Lifecycle of Tasks/Tickets:

  • What is the process for capturing and tracking tasks or tickets?
  • How will tasks or tickets flow through different stages (e.g., new, in progress, resolved)?
  • Who is responsible for assigning, updating, and closing tasks or tickets?
  • Is there a specific tool or system used for managing tasks or tickets?

Test Approach:

  • Will it be manual testing, automated testing, or a combination of both?
  • How will the test approach align with the development process (e.g., Agile, Waterfall)?

Testing Types:

  • What types of testing will be performed (e.g., functional testing, performance testing, security testing)?
  • Are there any specific criteria or standards for each testing type?
  • How will each testing type be prioritized and scheduled?
  • Are there any dependencies for certain testing types?

Roles and Responsibilities:

  • What are the different roles involved in the testing process?
  • What are the responsibilities of each role?

Testing Tools:

  • What are the preferred testing tools for different testing activities (open source/vendor-based)?
  • Are there any specific criteria for selecting testing tools?
  • How will the testing tools be integrated into the overall testing process?
  • Is there a plan for training and support in effectively using the testing tools?

42. How to manage changes in testing requirements?

There should always be a contingency plan in case some variables in the test plan need adjustment. When adjustments have to be made, we need to communicate with relevant stakeholders (project managers, developers, business analysts, etc.) to clarify the reasons, objectives, and scope of the change. After that, we will adapt the test plan, update the test artifacts, and continue with the test cycle according to the updated test plan.

43. What are some key metrics to measure testing success?

Several important test metrics include:

  • Test Coverage: the extent to which the software has been tested with respect to specific criteria
  • Defect Density: the number of defects (bugs) found in a specific software component or module, divided by the size or complexity of that component
  • Defect Removal Efficiency (DRE): the ratio of defects found and fixed during testing to the total number of defects found throughout the entire development lifecycle. A higher DRE value indicates that testing is effective in catching and fixing defects early in the development process
  • Test Pass Rate: the percentage of test cases that have passed successfully out of the total executed test cases. It indicates the overall success of the testing effort
  • Test Automation Coverage: the percentage of test cases that have been automated

44. What is an Object Repository?

In software testing, an object repository is a central storage location that holds all the information about the objects or elements of the application being tested. It is a key component of test automation frameworks and is used to store and manage the properties and attributes of user interface (UI) elements or objects.

45. Why do we need an Object Repository?

Having an Object Repository brings several benefits:

  • Modularity: Test scripts can refer to objects by name or identifier stored in the repository, making them more readable and maintainable.
  • Centralization: All object-related information is stored centrally in the repository, making it easier to update, maintain, and manage the objects, especially when there are changes in the application's UI.
  • Reusability: Testers can reuse the same objects across multiple test scripts, promoting reusability and reducing redundancy in test automation code.
  • Enhanced Collaboration: The object repository can be accessed by the entire test team, promoting collaboration and consistency in identifying and managing objects.

46. How do you ensure test case reusability and maintainability in your test suites?

There are several best practices when it comes to test case reusability and maintainability:

  • Break down test cases into smaller, independent modules or functions.
  • Each module should focus on testing a specific feature or functionality.
  • Use a centralized object repository to store and manage object details.
  • Separate object details from test scripts for easier maintenance.
  • Decouple test data from test scripts using data-driven testing techniques.
  • Store test data in external files (e.g., CSV, Excel, or databases) to facilitate easy updates and reusability.
  • Use test automation frameworks (e.g., TestNG, JUnit, Robot Framework) to provide structure.
  • Leverage libraries or utilities for common test tasks, such as logging, reporting, and data handling.

47. Write a test script using Selenium WebDriver with Java to verify the functionality of entering data in test boxes

Assumptions:

  • We are testing a simple web page with two text boxes: "username" and "password".
  • The website URL is "https://example.com/login".
  • We are using Chrome WebDriver. Make sure to have the ChromeDriver executable available and set the system property accordingly.
import org.openqa.selenium.By;
import org.openqa.selenium.WebDriver;
import org.openqa.selenium.WebElement;
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver;

public class TextBoxTest {

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        // Set ChromeDriver path
        System.setProperty("webdriver.chrome.driver", "path/to/chromedriver");

        // Create a WebDriver instance
        WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();

        // Navigate to the test page
        driver.get("https://example.com/login");

        // Find the username and password text boxes
        WebElement usernameTextBox = driver.findElement(By.id("username"));
        WebElement passwordTextBox = driver.findElement(By.id("password"));

        // Test Data
        String validUsername = "testuser";
        String validPassword = "testpass";

        // Test case 1: Enter valid data into the username text box
        usernameTextBox.sendKeys(validUsername);
        String enteredUsername = usernameTextBox.getAttribute("value");
        if (enteredUsername.equals(validUsername)) {
            System.out.println("Test case 1: Passed - Valid data entered in the username text box.");
        } else {
            System.out.println("Test case 1: Failed - Valid data not entered in the username text box.");
        }

        // Test case 2: Enter valid data into the password text box
        passwordTextBox.sendKeys(validPassword);
        String enteredPassword = passwordTextBox.getAttribute("value");
        if (enteredPassword.equals(validPassword)) {
            System.out.println("Test case 2: Passed - Valid data entered in the password text box.");
        } else {
            System.out.println("Test case 2: Failed - Valid data not entered in the password text box.");
        }

        // Close the browser
        driver.quit();
    }
}

48. Write a test script using Selenium WebDriver with Java to verify the error message for invalid email format.

import org.openqa.selenium.By;
import org.openqa.selenium.WebDriver;
import org.openqa.selenium.WebElement;
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver;

public class InvalidEmailTest {

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        // Set ChromeDriver path
        System.setProperty("webdriver.chrome.driver", "path/to/chromedriver");

        // Create a WebDriver instance
        WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();

        // Navigate to the test page
        driver.get("https://example.com/contact");

        // Find the email input field and submit button
        WebElement emailField = driver.findElement(By.id("email"));
        WebElement submitButton = driver.findElement(By.id("submitBtn"));

        // Test Data - Invalid email format
        String invalidEmail = "invalidemail";

        // Test case 1: Enter invalid email format and click submit
        emailField.sendKeys(invalidEmail);
        submitButton.click();

        // Find the error message element
        WebElement errorMessage = driver.findElement(By.className("error-message"));

        // Check if the error message is displayed and contains the expected text
        if (errorMessage.isDisplayed() && errorMessage.getText().equals("Invalid email format")) {
            System.out.println("Test case 1: Passed - Error message for invalid email format is displayed.");
        } else {
            System.out.println("Test case 1: Failed - Error message for invalid email format is not displayed or incorrect.");
        }

        // Close the browser
        driver.quit();
    }
}

49. How to do usability testing?

1. Decide which part of the product/website you want to test

2. Define the hypothesis (what will users do when they land on this part of the website? How do we verify that hypothesis?)

3. Set clear criteria for the usability test session

4. Write a study plan and script

5. Find suitable participants for the test

6. Conduct your study

7. Analyze collected data

50. How do you ensure that the testing team is aligned with the development team and the product roadmap?

  • Involve testing team members in project planning and product roadmap discussions from the beginning.
  • Attend sprint planning meetings, product backlog refinement sessions, and other relevant meetings to understand upcoming features and changes.
  • Promote regular communication between development and testing teams to share progress, updates, and challenges.
  • Utilize common tools for issue tracking, project management, and test case management to foster collaboration and transparency.
  • Define and track key performance indicators (KPIs) that measure the progress and quality of the project.
  • Consider having developers participate in testing activities like unit testing and code reviews, and testers assist in test automation.

51. How do you ensure that test cases are comprehensive and cover all possible scenarios?

Even though it's not possible to test every possible situation, testers should go beyond the common conditions and explore other scenarios. Besides the regular tests, we should also think about unusual or unexpected situations (edge cases and negative scenarios), which involve uncommon inputs or usage patterns. By considering these cases, we can improve the coverage of your testing. Attackers often target non-standard scenarios, so testing them is essential to enhance the effectiveness of our tests.

52. What are defect triage meetings?

Defect triage meetings are an important part of the software development and testing process. They are typically held to prioritize and manage the defects (bugs) found during testing or reported by users. The primary goal of defect triage meetings is to decide which defects should be addressed first and how they should be resolved.

53. What is the average age of a defect in software testing?

The average age of a defect in software testing refers to the average amount of time a defect remains open or unresolved from the moment it is identified until it is fixed and verified. It is a crucial metric used to measure the efficiency and effectiveness of the defect resolution process in the software development lifecycle.


The average age of a defect can vary widely depending on factors such as the complexity of the software, the testing process, the size of the development team, the severity of the defects, and the overall development methodology (e.g., agile, waterfall, etc.).

54. What are some essential qualities of an experienced QA or Test Lead?

An experienced QA or Test Lead should have technical expertise, domain knowledge, leadership skills, and communication skills. An effective QA Leader is one that can inspire, motivate, and guide the testing team, keeping them focused on goals and objectives.

55. Can you provide an example of a particularly challenging defect you have identified and resolved in your previous projects?

There is no true answer to this question because it depends on your experience. You can follow this framework to provide the most detailed information:


Step 1: Describe the defect in detail, including how it was identified (e.g., through testing, customer feedback, etc.)


Step 2: Explain why it was particularly challenging.


Step 3: Outline the steps you took to resolve the defect


Step 4: Discuss any obstacles you faced and your rationale to overcoming it.


Step 5: Explain how you ensure that the defect was fully resolved and the impact it had on the project and stakeholders.


Step 6: Reflect on what you learned from this experience.

56. What is DevOps?

DevOps is a software development approach and culture that emphasizes collaboration, communication, and integration between software development (Dev) and IT operations (Ops) teams. It aims to streamline and automate the software delivery process, enabling organizations to deliver high-quality software faster and more reliably.


Read More: DevOps Implementation Strategy

57. What is the difference between Agile and DevOps?

Agile focuses on iterative software development and customer collaboration, while DevOps extends beyond development to address the entire software delivery process, emphasizing automation, collaboration, and continuous feedback. Agile is primarily a development methodology, while DevOps is a set of practices and cultural principles aimed at breaking down barriers between development and operations teams to accelerate the delivery of high-quality software.

58. Explain user acceptance testing (UAT).

User Acceptance Testing (UAT) is when the software application is evaluated by end-users or representatives of the intended audience to determine whether it meets the specified business requirements and is ready for production deployment. UAT is also known as End User Testing or Beta Testing. The primary goal of UAT is to ensure that the application meets user expectations and functions as intended in real-world scenarios.

59. What are entry and exit criteria?

Entry criteria are the conditions that need to be fulfilled before testing can begin. They ensure that the testing environment is prepared, and the testing team has the necessary information and resources to start testing. Entry criteria may include:

  • Requirements Baseline
  • Test Plan Approval
  • Test Environment Readiness
  • Test Data Availability
  • Test Case Preparation
  • Test Resources

Similarly, exit criteria are the conditions that must be met for testing to be considered complete, and the software is ready for the next phase or release. These criteria ensure that the software meets the required quality standards before moving forward, including:

  • Test Case Execution
  • Defect Closure
  • Test Coverage
  • Stability
  • Performance Targets
  • User Acceptance

60. How to test a pen? Explain software testing techniques in the context of testing a pen.

Software Testing Techniques

Testing a Pen

1. Functional Testing

Verify that the pen writes smoothly, ink flows consistently, and the pen cap securely covers the tip.

2. Boundary Testing

Test the pen's ink level at minimum and maximum to check behavior at the boundaries.

3. Negative Testing

Ensure the pen does not write when no ink is present and behaves correctly when the cap is missing.

4. Stress Testing

Apply excessive pressure while writing to check the pen's durability and ink leakage.

5. Compatibility Testing

Test the pen on various surfaces (paper, glass, plastic) to ensure it writes smoothly on different materials.

6. Performance Testing

Evaluate the pen's writing speed and ink flow to meet performance expectations.

7. Usability Testing

Assess the pen's grip, comfort, and ease of use to ensure it is user-friendly.

8. Reliability Testing

Test the pen under continuous writing to check its reliability during extended usage.

9. Installation Testing

Verify that multi-part pens assemble easily and securely during usage.

10. Exploratory Testing

Creatively test the pen to uncover any potential hidden defects or unique scenarios.

11. Regression Testing

Repeatedly test the pen's core functionalities after any changes, such as ink replacement or design modifications.

12. User Acceptance Testing

Have potential users evaluate the pen's writing quality and other features to ensure it meets their expectations.

13. Security Testing

Ensure the pen cap securely covers the tip, preventing ink leaks or staining.

14. Recovery Testing

Accidentally drop the pen to verify if it remains functional or breaks upon impact.

15. Compliance Testing

If applicable, test the pen against industry standards or regulations.

Recommended Readings For Your Software Testing Interview

To better prepare for your interviews, here are some topic-specific lists of interview questions:

The list above only touches mostly the theory of the QA industry. In several companies you will even be challenged with an interview project, which requires you to demonstrate your software testing skills. You can read through our Katalon Blog for up-to-date information on the testing industry, especially automation testing, which will surely be useful in your QA interview.


As a leading automation testing platform, Katalon offers free Software Testing courses for both beginners and intermediate testers through Katalon Academy, a comprehensive knowledge hub packed with informative resources. 

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